The most intelligent group of animals, ever known, and yet by and large, an almost extinct order – save for one modern species; Homo Sapiens (Sapiens) Indeed, in the past, there were over 20 different kinds of Humans, (Hominids) going back over 4.4 million years ago, all either genetically distinct and/or clearly physically and mentally distinct from each other. The Australopithicines were the first upright, bipedal primates. However, they are regarded as higher apes, though not Human. Still, it is clear that these were our first direct ancestors, and were relatively hyper-advanced, when compared with the Baboons and Monkeys it shared its world with. Humans are a unique group.Having stood upright, and survived a new world of terrible beasts that did indeed take a death-toll on their populations, the ancestors of Homo Sapiens, began to spread out of Africa, and adapt to the vast range of conditions across Asia, and then Europe. Homo Habilis, evolved into Homo Ergaster, whom in turn evolved into Homo Erectus. However, Homo Ergaster also evolved into Homo Heidelbergensis, later on. Heidelbergensis was living in Africa, and Europe. When the Ice Ages got bad, the climate changed, and the Europeans and Africans were separated from each other by impassable geography for the rest of the existence of Homo Heidelbergensis. As the Ice Caps locked up water in great volume, the Equator and the Tropics onwards began to dry out. The harsh, frozen European snow landscape, was heavily contrasted by the parched furnace of the sandy African landscape. Put under the exact opposite extremes of climate, Homo Heidelbergensis, evolved into two different new species. Bred for toughness out of the bleak Ice gripped Europe, Homo Neanderthalensis evolved. In Africa, though, Homo Heidelbergensis, had evolved into the most incredibly imaginative creature ever known – us, Homo Sapiens. Nevertheless, in spite of all of our astronomical achievements, we are in the end, ultimately just another link in the chains of evolution, and just another large mammal – like the now extinct Ice Age mammals of the Pleistocene Mega-Fauna. We to, are destined for extinction, one day – and perhaps we will destroy ourselves in the tragic end.