Estemmenosuchus was a large therapsid with distinguishing horn-like protrusions of the skull bones. Two
species of the genus have been found near Ocher, Russia, dated to 267 million years in age.

It was a large reptile, measuring up to 5 meters long. This made it one of the biggest land animals of its time, dwarfing other reptiles and amphibians that it lived with.

Opinion varies on what Estemmenosuchus ate. They have several different types of teeth, suggesting omnivory, but full carnivory or herbivory has also been suggested as well.

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